For detailed information on the origins, development and "intellectual underpinnings" of cognitive linguistics (in short CL), go and have a look at the website of the International Cognitive Linguistics Association. The International Cognitive Linguistics Association, in short ICLA, connects cognitive linguistics all over the world. It is involved in sponsoring the major journal Cognitive Linguistics, organizing conferences, publishing books, and so on. You will also find a variety of useful material there, as well as reading lists for several subfields of CL and many links to related theories.
You might also find it helpful to read through the introductory text provided by Cogweb, titled: From Structuralism to Cognitivism (click on debate and it's the first article on the site) to get a little more historical input.