The Restoration was the period after the end of the Civil War in England. After the Civil War Charles II. was restored on the throne and with his restoration the English, Irish and Scottish monarchy was restored, as well. Before the Restoration England was ruled by Oliver Cromwell. Charles II. started a revolution against him but failed miserably in his first attempt. With around 13,000 Scots he tried to invade England and was defeated completely. It was sheer luck that saved him. Almost every member of his army was either killed or captured. Charles II. was concealed by a family who supported the royal idea. Before he tried to invade England, he was defeated by an English invasion army. It seems that this event made Charles II. to actually start the plan of his invasion. In the end Charles II. could only succeed because of the death, and the political instability that was caused by it, of Oliver Cromwell. His son Richard who was supposed to follow father as a Lord Protector was not able to control the country. One main reason was that he lacked the support of the army. Finally the parliament was taken over by royalists, who restored Charles II. to the throne of England.
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