Describe sign models

1. According to Saussure,

a) the linguistic sign consists of two parts: the material, which is realized phonetically (or graphemically), and the concept. (:vips 7434:)

b) linguistic signs are arbitrary. (:vips 7435:)

c) there is always an internal natural link between sound pattern and meaning. (:vips 7436:)
2. According to Peirce,

a) signs that reveal similarities to their referent are called icons. (:vips 7437:)

b) indices are based on convention. (:vips 7438:)

c) linguistic signs are symbols. (:vips 7439:)
3. According to Odgen and Richards,

a) the dependent relationship between symbol, thought, and referent can be illustrated with the help of a geometric schema. (:vips 7440:)

b) there is a direct relation between the symbol and the referent. (:vips 7441:)

c) linguistic expressions bear a causal relation to the real world. (:vips 7442:)
4. According to Bühler,

a) two functions of the lingustic sign are distinguished. (:vips 7443:)

b) language has an appelative function. (:vips 7444:)

c) a symbol represents objects and states of affairs in reality. (:vips 7445:)