Describe sign models
1. According to Saussure,
a) the linguistic sign consists of two parts: the material, which is realized phonetically (or graphemically), and the concept. (:vips 7434:)
b) linguistic signs are arbitrary. (:vips 7435:)
c) there is always an internal natural link between sound pattern and meaning.
2. According to Peirce,
a) signs that reveal similarities to their referent are called icons. (:vips 7437:)
b) indices are based on convention. (:vips 7438:)
c) linguistic signs are symbols.
3. According to Odgen and Richards,
a) the dependent relationship between symbol, thought, and referent can be illustrated with the help of a geometric schema. (:vips 7440:)
b) there is a direct relation between the symbol and the referent. (:vips 7441:)
c) linguistic expressions bear a causal relation to the real world.
4. According to Bühler,
a) two functions of the lingustic sign are distinguished. (:vips 7443:)
b) language has an appelative function. (:vips 7444:)
c) a symbol represents objects and states of affairs in reality. (:vips 7445:)