General Linguistics

Selected Subfields


The class pattern: describe social stratification

Take a look at the diagram below which shows the average frequencies for the phonological variable (ng) in formal style and say whether the statements are right or wrong.

Social differentiation for the variable (ng) in formal style in Norwich (based on data from Trudgill 1974: 92)

a) Middle class speakers make comparatively high use of the non-standard variant. (:vips 12247:)

b) The working class members employ rather high percentages of the non-standard pronunciation. (:vips 12248:)

c) The higher the social status of a speaker, the lower is the use of the standard form of pronunciation. (:vips 12249:)

d) Members of the lower working class show the highest use of the non-standard variant. (:vips 12250:)

e) Speakers of the upper working class use the lowest amount of the non-standard-pronunciation within the WC. (:vips 12251:)

f) Among the middle class, members of the middle middle class use the [n] variant most frequently. (:vips 12252:)

g) The diagram reflects sharp stratification for variable (ng) between the middle and the working classes. (:vips 12253:)