Syntax


Proform test: NPs


(a) Proforms replacing NP:

(i) personal pronouns ( I put the book on the table)
(ii) interrogative pronouns (You put what on the table?)

Test sentence: Sally married a student of linguistics with long hair.

She married him. (substitution by personal pronouns)
Who married who(m)? (substitution by interrogative pronouns)
Whom did Sally marry? (substitution with wh-movement)
(Sally and a student of linguistics with long hair are NPs)

* Sally married this him. (substitution by personal pronoun)
(student of linguistics with long hair is not an NP)

(b) Proform replacing N': one

this one (not to be confused with the generic NP one (=German man))

Complication:
While one in this use is minimally an N', it can also be an NP proform, i.e. an N' with nothing in the SPEC position: [NP [N' one]]); cf.
I donít like this [article on pronouns] or that [one]. (one replaces [N' article on pronouns])
Iím having [a drink]: Would you like [one] too? (one replaces [NP a drink]) (Quirk et al., p. 387)

Test sentence: Sally married a student of linguistics with long hair.

She married this one, not the other one. (substitution by one)
(student of linguistics with long hair is an N')
She married the one with long hair. (substitution by one)
(student of linguistics is an N', so with long hair must be an adjunct)
* She married the one of linguistics.
(student is not an N', so of linguistics must be a complement)

Note:
In the text above we refer to constituents of the type [determiner + (modified) noun] (e.g. the student or the student of linguistics with long hair) as NPs. In a more recent analysis, determiners are considered to be the head (Dį) of a determiner phrase (DP), and the noun functions as its NP-complement.
According to this analysis pronouns are proforms for DPs, and one is a proform for NPs.
For further information on DPs click here.